The piston pump is a reciprocating pump in which the high-pressure seal and the piston move alternately. These pumps utilize to transport compressed gases or liquids. They can work in a wide range of pressures. High-pressure performance can be achieved without a significant effect on flow rate. Piston pumps can also control viscous fluids and environments containing solid particles.

This type of pump uses a piston cup, a rocking mechanism (where the downstroke changes the pressure) and fills the pump cavity (the upstroke forces the pump fluid to flow for your use). Piston pumps are commonly used in situations that require high pressure and continuous water supply or irrigation systems.

The working of a piston pump is very similar to a diaphragm pump. The main difference is that a diaphragm pump uses a diaphragm for pressurizing the fluid instead of piston.

Piston pumps are included in durable and simple devices. A piston, a chamber and two valves are the main piston pump component. The, thereby squeezing the container inside the pump works by pushing the piston into the chamber. The special liquid, usually water or oil, are used in the hydraulic pump.

The compressed fluid passes through the open outlet valve when the liquid pressure exceeds the outlet pressure spring. The inlet valve opens and closes the outlet valve when the piston is pulled, thus harnessing the suction in new media for compression.

One of the most efficient types of pumps is the piston pump; although relatively expensive, they have good pressure (up to 10,000 psi), but their design allows it. They provide excellent solutions for many high-pressure hydraulic oil pump applications.

A hydraulic pump is any type of volumetric machine used in fluid power applications to supply hydraulic current to electrical equipment for fluids such as cylinders, pistons, motors, and other equipment.

Types of Piston Pump

The two main types of piston pumps are Lift pumps and power pumps. Both types can be manually or motor-driven.

1) Lift Pump

In this piston pump, the upward stroke pulls the water piston through a valve under the cylinder. The water enters the upper part of the cylinder through a valve attached to the piston. In the next skin, water is discharged from the top of the cylinder through the nozzle. The height of the water limits this type of pump to resist the pressure of the air against the vacuum.

2) Radial Piston Pump

It is a hydraulic piston pump. The active pistons expand perfectly symmetrically around the shaft, showing their main difference from another piston pump, an axial rotating piston.

A series of pistons in a cylindrical block surrounds the rotor hub, basically placed by the radial reciprocating pump. A shaft, a cylinder head with a piston and a rotor are the main component of the cylinder. The axis pushes the fluid in and out of the cylinder. The shaft abnormally installs in the pump housing.

When the shaft rotates, it forces the piston in and out of the cylinder, causing hydraulic fluid to be drawn into the cylinder cavity and therefore exit from it. The pump inlet and outlet locate in the centre of the bucket valve. Each piston connects to the inlet when it begins to expand and to the outlet when it begins to contract.

The other design places the inlet and outlet around the pump housing. Fixed or variable displacement models are purchased in terms of reciprocating radial pumps. The eccentricity of the rotor in the pumping chamber changes to reduce or increase the piston strokes in the variable displacement version.

They have many advantages: high efficiency, high-pressure capability up to 1000 bar or 14000 psi, low current and pressure fluctuations, low noise level, very high load at minimum speed, and high reliability.

The disadvantage is that they are larger than axial pumps due to their larger radial size and, therefore, cannot always be used in applications with limited space.

Advantages of Piston Pumps

The pressure range of the piston pump is very wide. It can deliver very high pressure, which can affect the pressure and not affect the flow. The piston pump has a continuous discharge flow rate.

Pressure variations and exhaust speeds have little effect on performance. Piston pumps can carry viscous liquids, large quantities of gases and solids provided the valve design is correct.

Disadvantages of Piston Pump

Compared to centrifugal pumps, the cost per unit of performance of piston pumps is higher. Mechanical components are easy to handle so that that maintenance costs can be high. The valves must be abrasion resistant to pass large solids.

Piston pumps are heavy due to the size and heavy crankshaft that drives the pump. These pumps have low efficiency compared to piston pumps.

Application of the piston pump

  • The Piston pump uses to transport compressed liquids or gases and pump viscous environments and environments containing solid particles.
  • Piston pumps use for water and oil hydraulic systems, industrial processing equipment, high-pressure cleaning and liquid pumping.


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